The report concludes with: The specific forces and means employed in the Dresden bombings were in keeping with the forces and means employed by the Allies in other aerial attacks on comparable targets in Germany. Vonnegut recalled "utter destruction" and "carnage unfathomable." Le 13 février 1945, les démocraties anglaise et américaine commencent le plus brutal 93% (33 votes) Votez cet article . Howard Cowan, an Associated Press war correspondent, subsequently filed a story saying that the Allies had resorted to terror bombing. [71] Frederick Taylor in Dresden (2004), basing most of his analysis on the work of Bergander and Schnatz, concludes that no strafing took place, although some stray bullets from aerial dogfights may have hit the ground and been mistaken for strafing by those in the vicinity. Les bombes incendiaires sont utilisées comme armes de guerre. On possède des observations de telles tempêtes de feu pour le bombardement de Coventry par l'Allemagne, celui de Hambourg[36] (opération Gomorrhe), et pour les bombardements atomiques d'Hiroshima et Nagasaki. The Albertstadt, in the north of Dresden, had remarkable military facilities that the bombings failed to hit. [131] As such, "grossly inflated"[5] casualty figures have been promulgated over the years, many based on a figure of over 200,000 deaths quoted in a forged version of the casualty report, Tagesbefehl No. Après ceux d’Hiroshima et de Nagasaki, il s’agit du bombardement aérien le plus meurtrier de cette guerre. [136], A report by the U.S. Air Force Historical Division (USAFHD) analyzed the circumstances of the raid and concluded that it was militarily necessary and justified, based on the following points:[7], The first point regarding the legitimacy of the raid depends on two claims: first, that the railyards subjected to American precision bombing were an important logistical target, and that the city was also an important industrial centre. He survived the bombing in a bunker beneath a slaughterhouse in Dresden. [83] The same report said that the raids had destroyed 24 banks, 26 insurance buildings, 31 stores and retail houses, 640 shops, 64 warehouses, 2 market halls, 31 large hotels, 26 public houses, 63 administrative buildings, 3 theatres, 18 cinemas, 11 churches, 6 chapels; 5 other cultural buildings, 19 hospitals including auxiliary, overflow hospitals, and private clinics, 39 schools, 5 consulates, the zoo, the waterworks, the railways, 19 postal facilities, 4 tram facilities, and 19 ships and barges. Initially, some of the leadership, especially Robert Ley and Joseph Goebbels, wanted to use it as a pretext for abandonment of the Geneva Conventions on the Western Front. He writes that the bombing was the first time the public in Allied countries seriously questioned the military actions used to defeat the Germans.[102]. The Hague Conventions, addressing the codes of wartime conduct on land and at sea, were adopted before the rise of air power. I know only one thing: that I must not burn. The Germans put him and other POWs to work gathering bodies for mass burial. Le bombardement de Dresde, qui eut lieu du 13 au 15 février 1945, selon les principes de la Directive du ministère de l'air du gouvernement britannique sur le bombardement de zone du 14 février 1942 devenue avec l'USAAF celle de en 1943, détruisit presque entièrement la ville allemande de Dresde, dans le cadre d'un bombardement combiné en Bomber stream. It was dark and all of us tried to leave this cellar with inconceivable panic. Sammen med overskærmen leveres også 4 styk balanceringe.Disse ringe kan du anvende på de andre 4 overskærme. The 303rd group arrived over Dresden two minutes after the 379th and found their view obscured by clouds, so they bombed Dresden using H2X radar. La ville de Dresde était très importante pour l’Allemagne, notamment au niveau historique. [13][14], In the decades since the war, large variations in the claimed death toll have fuelled the controversy, though the numbers themselves are no longer a major point of contention among historians. But the Allies' firebombing of Dresden and nuclear destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were also war crimes – and as Leo Kuper and Eric Markusen have argued, also acts of genocide. L'United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) et la Royal Air Force (RAF) utilisèrent des bombes incendiaires notamment à la thermite[1], l'emploi du phosphore étant lui discuté. [6] A 1953 United States Air Force report defended the operation as the justified bombing of a strategic target, which they noted was a major rail transport and communication centre, housing 110 factories and 50,000 workers in support of the German war effort. The Eighth Air Force had already bombed the railway yards near the centre of the city twice in daytime raids: once on 7 October 1944 with 70 tons of high-explosive bombs killing more than 400,[46] then again with 133 bombers on 16 January 1945, dropping 279 tons of high-explosives and 41 tons of incendiaries. Du 13 au 15 février 1945 suivant le plan « Bomber Harris* » du boucher Harris les bombardiers de la Royal Air Force et de l’U.S. [57] The first bombs were released at 22:13, the last at 22:28, the Lancasters delivering 881.1 tons of bombs, 57% high explosive, 43% incendiaries. [67] The 379th bombardment group started to bomb Dresden at 12:17, aiming at marshalling yards in the Friedrichstadt district west of the city centre, as the area was not obscured by smoke and cloud. It is a baby. [7], As far as Dresden being a militarily significant industrial centre, an official 1942 guide described the German city as "... one of the foremost industrial locations of the Reich," and in 1944, the German Army High Command's Weapons Office listed 127 medium-to-large factories and workshops that supplied materiel to the military. According to him, 600,000 civilians died during the allied bombing of German cities, including 72,000 children. Il détruisit presque entièrement la ville allemande de Dresde, dans le cadre d'un bombardement combiné en bomber stream. Les bombes classiques et à retardement furent aussi utilisées. [68], Strafing of civilians has become a traditional part of the oral history of the raids, since a March 1945 article in the Nazi-run weekly newspaper Das Reich claimed this had occurred. Lien en allemand : Outre le rapport final de 96 pages, sont aussi disponibles, toujours en allemand : (, This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 16:07. Dresde 1945 [83] Almost 200 factories were damaged, 136 seriously (including several of the Zeiss Ikon precision optical engineering works), 28 with medium to serious damage, and 35 with light damage. [78] Taylor writes the city was largely undefended; a night fighter force of ten Messerschmitt Bf 110Gs at Klotzsche airfield was scrambled, but it took them half an hour to get into an attack position. The RAF also had an advantage over the Germans in the field of electronic radar countermeasures. Frauenkirche: Exceptionnel - consultez 6 540 avis de voyageurs, 3 948 photos, les meilleures offres et comparez les prix pour Dresde, Allemagne sur Tripadvisor. It is now none of these things.[112]. En une nuit et deux jours, près de 1 300 bombardiers ont largué 2 431 tonnes (tons) de bombes « HE » (high explosive, à grand pouvoir explosif, comportant un régime de détonation supersonique), et 1 475 tonnes de bombes « IB » (incendiary bombs, soit des centaines de milliers de bombes incendiaires), lors de trois raids principaux (13 et 14 février) et d'un dernier raid le 15 février, soit plus de 3 900 tonnes d'engins explosifs et incendaires[12]. [115][116], John Kenneth Galbraith was among those in the Roosevelt administration who had qualms about the bombing. [32], During the Yalta Conference on 4 February, the Deputy Chief of the Soviet General Staff, General Aleksei Antonov, raised the issue of hampering the reinforcement of German troops from the western front by paralysing the junctions of Berlin and Leipzig with aerial bombardment. [125], In 2003, a petition in support of reconstructing the Neumarkt area was signed by nearly 68,000 people, amounting to 15% of the entire electorate. "[166] Dyson later goes on to say: "Since the beginning of the war I had been retreating step by step from one moral position to another, until at the end I had no moral position at all". [42] The city was at the junction of the Berlin-Prague-Vienna railway line, as well as the Munich-Breslau, and Hamburg-Leipzig lines. Annoncer med Bombardement på DBA. Le 28 mars 1945, Winston Churchill s'interrogea dans une note d'état major sur l'opportunité de ce bombardement[18]. [74], Dresden's air defences had been depleted by the need for more weaponry to fight the Red Army, and the city lost its last massive flak battery in January 1945. À l'arrière-plan, la manufacture de tabac Yenidze. Skip to main content. men lampen er lovlig og der bliver lavet en faktura pÅ kØbet hvor stelnummeret kommer til at stÅ pÅ. La ville (629 713 habitants en 1939) comprenait en effet plusieurs gares et centralisait des réseaux téléphoniques vitaux pour le front de l'Est ; en raison des circonstances, elle aurait été intégrée tardivement au projet opération Thunderclap (de) en août 1944 qui proposait originairement de frapper Berlin[5] de manière décisive[6]. 3,0 sur 5 étoiles bon film de guerre. It also contained all of the worst from Germany during the Nazi period. Traditional British chivalry and the use of minimum force in war was to become a mockery and the outrages perpetrated by the bombers will be remembered a thousand years hence".[148]. [94] Goebbels is reported to have wept with rage for twenty minutes after he heard the news of the catastrophe, before launching into a bitter attack on Hermann Göring, the commander of the Luftwaffe: "If I had the power I would drag this cowardly good-for-nothing, this Reich marshal, before a court. Several researchers claim that not all of the communications infrastructure, such as the bridges, were targeted, nor were the extensive industrial areas outside the city centre. He passed on the request to Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Charles Portal, the Chief of the Air Staff, who answered, "We should use available effort in one big attack on Berlin and attacks on Dresden, Leipzig, and Chemnitz, or any other cities where a severe blitz will not only cause confusion in the evacuation from the East, but will also hamper the movement of troops from the West. Bacchus sur un âne ivre, œuvre de Georg Wrba[48]. I am that person. Grands hôpitaux de Dresde : Stadtkrankenhaus Friedrichstadt, Stadtkrankenhaus Dresden-Johannstadt, Klinik St. Joseph Stift, Krankenhaus Carolahaus (1878). Frederick Taylor told Der Spiegel, "I personally find the attack on Dresden horrific. It became more and more difficult to breathe. Le premier maire communiste de Dresde, après la guerre, Walter Weidauer (de), considérait en 1946 les attaques comme évitables bien qu'ayant été provoquées par les « fascistes allemands ». Warning! Le phosphore blanc fut largement crédité par les Alliés d'avoir empêché de nombreuses attaques de l'infanterie allemande et d'avoir créé de gros dégâts dans les troupes ennemies lors de la dernière partie de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. [51] The attack was to centre on the Ostragehege sports stadium, next to the city's medieval Altstadt (old town), with its congested and highly combustible timbered buildings. La stratégie allemande faisait de l’ensemble des grandes villes sur le front de l’Est — die Festungen (« les forteresses ») — un rempart. Les photos sont de Richard Peter, revenu à Dresde en septembre 1945. His account relates that over 135,000 were killed during the firebombings. Le bombardement de Dresde, qui eut lieu du 13 au 15 février 1945, détruisit presque entièrement la ville allemande de Dresde. Le bombardement de Dresde, qui eut lieu du 13 au 15 février 1945, selon les principes de la Directive du ministère de l'air du gouvernement britannique sur le bombardement de zone du 14 février 1942 devenue avec l'USAAF celle de en 1943, détruisit presque entièrement la ville allemande de Dresde, dans le cadre d'un bombardement combiné en Bomber stream. H2X aiming caused the groups to bomb with a wide dispersal over the Dresden area. En lire plus. Four major raids were carried out in the span of 10 days, of which the most notable, on 27–28 July, created a devastating firestorm effect similar to Dresden's, killing at least 45,000 people. The German national air-defence system could be used to argue—as the tribunal did—that no German city was "undefended". [7] By this stage in the war both the British and the Germans had integrated air defences at the national level. [70] In 2000, historian Helmut Schnatz found an explicit order to RAF pilots not to strafe civilians on the way back from Dresden. The intentions of the attack are to hit the enemy where he will feel it most, behind an already partially collapsed front, to prevent the use of the city in the way of further advance, and incidentally to show the Russians when they arrive what Bomber Command can do. Le tout est disponible sur Internet: ministère allemand des Affaires étrangères, bombardements atomiques d'Hiroshima et Nagasaki, LTI-Lingua Tertii Imperii: Notizbuch eines Philologen, Retour sur la destruction de Dresde du 13-14 février 1945,, « Historical Analysis of the 14-15 February 1945 Bombings of Dresden », prepared by the USAF Historical Division, Research Studies Institute, 1945,,,,,,,, Directive sur le bombardement de zone du 14 février 1942, Bombardements stratégiques durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Dresde vue de la rive droite de l'Elbe en dessous du pont Auguste, Dresde vue de la rive droite de l'Elbe au-dessus du pont Auguste, Pour tenter d’en finir avec les idées fausses sur Dresde, Opérations aériennes de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Bombardements stratégiques alliés contre les ressources pétrolières de l'Axe, Opérations aériennes pendant la bataille de Normandie, Raids aériens japonais des îles Mariannes, Bombardements atomiques d'Hiroshima et de Nagasaki,, Bataille ou opération aérienne de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Massacre ou atrocité de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Article contenant un appel à traduction en allemand, Article contenant un appel à traduction en anglais, Article avec une section vide ou incomplète, Catégorie Commons avec lien local identique sur Wikidata, Page utilisant une présentation en colonnes avec un nombre fixe de colonnes, Portail:Époque contemporaine/Articles liés, Portail:Seconde Guerre mondiale/Articles liés, Portail:Forces armées des États-Unis/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. There was talk of mutiny among the Polish pilots, and their British officers removed their side arms. See reviews & details on a wide selection of Blu-ray & DVDs, both new & used. [24] On 25 January, the Joint Intelligence Committee supported the idea, as it tied in with the Ultra-based intelligence that dozens of German divisions deployed in the west were moving to reinforce the Eastern Front, and that interdiction of these troop movements should be a "high priority.